1654-9163 (print) ISSN 2001-7235 (online)
The Abraham Zelmanov Journal
The journal for General Relativity, gravitation and cosmology
Unix-born operating systems
Below are listed only open source free operating systems (Linux, BSD, OpenSolaris), derived from Unix and developed under the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) or the other license agreements which are similar to it. All the operating systems are absolutely free for copying, distribution and development. Software working under Linux and other Unix-like systems is completely included into the listed Linux/Unix distributions. Linux, BSD, and OpenSolaris use common software applications, generated from the same source codes.
Linux is a free open source operating system created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The hearth of the system is Linux Kernel, originally constructed by Torvalds, then surrounded by graphic shells such as KDE and GNOME (now with also novell 3D window managers Beryl and Compiz), and also many applications: office, programming, multimedia, etc. Despite a thousand individuals and many companies participate the project after 1991, Linux Kernel is maintained by Torvalds till now. Commencing the last 1990's Linux project is sponsored by bulky corporations such as IBM, DELL, Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, Novell, and others. Linux distribution, in contrast to other operating systems on sale without applications, provides as possible complete set of applications accessed to such a kind of operating system. This is why once installed on computer, Linux doesn't require additional software in most cases (despite any additional program or update can be installed). There are many distributions of Linux, generated from the source code by different teams of developers. The distrbutions differ by installation method and set of programs. We present only a few main Linux distributions most popular between corporate users and individuals. Tux, the penguin that above, is the officially logo of Linux, drawn by Larry Ewing (combined versions of this logo were drawn by Andreas Dilger).
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)
FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD are advanced free open source operating systems derived from BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution aka Berkeley Unix), the version of Unix initially developed at the University of California, Berkeley. BSD operating systems are developed and maintained by large teams of individuals. FreeBSD has a few derivatives such as PC-BSD, DesktopBSD, and DragonFlyBSD, including live CD/DVD systems. The BSD Daemon, also called Beastie, is the officially logo of BSD. A most common is the above as drawn by John Lasseter.
OpenSolaris is an open source Unix based operating system, initially based on the source code of the Solaris Operating System of Sun Microsystems Inc. OpenSolaris is developed by a large team of individuals, and is distributed as a source code. OpenSolaris has a few ready-to-use distributions, produced on the base of the source code, such as NexentaOS, BeleniX, MilaX, Schillix, Indiana, and marTux, which include live CD/DVD systems. The logo that here is usual to BeleniX.
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ABOUT THE JOURNAL
The Abraham Zelmanov Journal is an annually issue scientific journal registered with the Royal National Library of Sweden.